merchant or indirectly through agent banks or other third parties. Credit card payment networks like Visa, Mastercard, American Express and Discover permit participating merchants to impose credit card surcharges, when allowed by law. ; the issuer, which provides a payment card to a cardholder and usually maintains the cardholder's account. Every payment card transaction involves: the cardholder, who uses a debit or credit card to pay for a product or service. Businesses are allowed to impose a surcharge on credit card purchases made on Visa and Mastercard, under a court settlement that took effect in January 2013. Pursuant to a settlement of the U.S. merchant class litigation, Mastercard modified certain rules and business practices to permit U.S. merchants to apply an extra checkout fee, also known as a surcharge, to customers who pay with Mastercard-branded credit cards. ; the merchant, which provides the product or service for a price. The Code of Conduct for the Credit and Debit Card Industry in Canada (the Code), which all payment card networks operating in Canada have adopted, sets out several rights that merchants have in relation to their contracts and their statements for payment card processing services. A bank can be both an issuing bank and an acquiring bank, but banks most often specialize in one function or the other. Merchant services process payments made to the merchant and facilitate the payment of the merchant. Most merchants operate within credit card issuer rules and are aware of what can and cannot be done, though the maze of regulations can be confusing. At present, merchants can pass along a charge equal to what they pay to accept the card, up to 4 percent. Credit card surcharges are legal. Credit card processing fees can add up to a big expense for merchants. In serving as the medium between the parties, fraud by the merchant services processing payment can cause significant damages to the merchant, … Card associations charge participating merchants a fee for each consumer credit card transaction and the fee varies based on card association and credit card type. For example, Cheryl Lavenhar, owner of Knit — a shop geared to all things knitting — in Roslyn, N.Y., warns, “It’s illegal to say you don’t take a card … Under American law, in credit card fraud cases, the credit card fraud victim holds little to no liability for the credit card fraud. (1) A seller or lessor in a sales or lease transaction may not impose a surcharge on the buyer or lessee for electing to use a credit card in lieu of payment by cash, check, or similar means, if the seller or lessor accepts payment by credit card. 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